ECONOMICS - INNOVATIVE AND RESEARCH JOURNAL 2022-06-21T19:29:35+02:00 Zoran Mastilo Open Journal Systems <p>We are proud to present the magazine "ECONOMICS” Innovative and Economic Research Journal Oikos Institute in Bijeljina that comes out, continuously, twice a year. Oikos Institute is dedicated to the constant development of the journal.</p> <p>Based on the decision of the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Serbian, number 07.030-053-50-11 / 13 of 06.03.2013. year, approved the registration of "Oikos Institute" doo Bijeljina in the register of publishers, numbered 383 rd.</p> <p>Starting from the fact that most of the economic progress is based on innovation, ECONOMICS - Innovative and Economic Research Journal has focused primarily on knowledge economy and innovation. Only unpublished papers, that represent original scientific research, which contribute to the knowledge economy and innovation, are published in the journal.</p> <p>The reason is very simple: nothing happens in the world economy without being fundamentally connected with technological changes. Innovation is a key driving force that accelerates all kinds of social changes. Innovations and changes within the fourth industrial revolution are the most famous in the world of new technologies that shape the global economic and technological structure, international and local markets, as well as the entire socio-cultural system.</p> <p>The editorial board is edited by eminent professors and associates, as well as renowned scientific and research workers from the country and abroad.</p> <p>All published scientific papers subject to mandatory review by two independent reviewers. Accepted papers are published in English.</p> GLOBAL POST-PANDEMIC RECOVERY (?) AND INNOVATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF GEOPOLITICAL AGGRAVATION 2022-06-21T15:30:45+02:00 Petar Đukić <p>Editorial</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 HYBRID MCDM SOLUTIONS FOR EVALUATION OF THE LOGISTICS PERFORMANCE INDEX OF THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES 2022-06-21T15:36:39+02:00 Amar Mešić Smiljka Miškić Željko Stević Zoran Mastilo <p>The Logistics Performance Index (LPI) performed by the World Bank is an indicator of the logistics environment quality of a country in which logistics operators act. The LPI is an interactive tool designed to help countries identify challenges, innovative solutions, and opportunities they face in their work in the field of trade and logistics. The aim of this paper is to conduct a comparative analysis and ranking of the LPI of the countries in the Western Balkans (Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Albania, Serbia and Montenegro), calculated by the World Bank for 2018, using an integrated Criteria Importance Trough Intercriteria Correlation (CRITIC)-Measurement Alternatives and Ranking according to Compromise Solution (MARCOS) model and thus show the real picture of the logistics environment. In order to determine the performance of countries and show the overall logistics performance, six key dimensions are used: customs, infrastructure, international transport, logistics capability, tracking and tracing of goods and shipment delivery within scheduled or expected times. Using the CRITIC method, the weight values of the previously mentioned six criteria were calculated, whereby the criterion related to shipment delivery within scheduled times was singled out as the most significant criterion. Then, by applying the MARCOS method, the countries of the Western Balkans were ranked on the basis of the six defined criteria. Based on the results obtained, the best-ranked country is Serbia. The analysis of the sensitivity of the results to changes in the significance of the criteria does not show significant changes in the ranking.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 DOES IT MATTER FOR CBDC DESIGN? PRIVACY-ANONYMITY PREFERENCES FROM THE SIDE OF HIERARCHIES AND EGALITARIAN CULTURAL PATTERNS 2022-06-21T15:42:17+02:00 Viktor Koziuk Yurii Ivashuk <p>Evolution of digital money demonstrates that CBDC (Central Bank Digital Currency means a digital form of traditional fat currencies) design is really challenging. While technically possible CBDC solutions are visible, much of institutional aspects are rest to be unsolved. One of the issues is a degree of privacy and anonymity. All historical forms of money had intrinsic property of non-traceability of transactions and only now this feature of non-digital money is recognized as strong institutional advance. At the same time, privacy and anonymity preferences could relate to cultural attitudes. However, money may distort expected logical relations between such patterns like “less hierarchies more privacy-anonymity” or “more egalitarianism less privacy-anonymity”. This potentially means that money may posit extra propensity to privacy anonymity that is going beyond the cultural attitudes. Basing on the survey, we demonstrate some contradictions in how respondents perceive the preference of functional usability over anonymity of transactions. The same is relevant when cultural patterns are taken into account. It is more likely to find cultural closeness across respondents from different regions than strong determinacy of privacy-anonymity preferences by propensity to hierarchies or egalitarianism. Additionally, we checked hierarchies or egalitarianism attitudes by additional questions and found some mixed results. Also, we found some conformism culture (meaning unstable preferences) and rely it with lack of trust in public institutions. When centralized money are less trusted people faster agree to sacrifice anonymity in the benefits of functionality. The main take away is that it is unlikely to expect the unity of optimal CBDC design across countries. Aside of behavioural distortions, culture still matter and it is likely to expect future variety of digital money from functional usability privacy-anonymity trade-off.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 RECOVERY OF SLOVENIAN TOURISM AFTER COVID-19 AND UKRAINE CRISIS 2022-06-21T15:47:25+02:00 Predrag Ljubotina Andrej Raspor <p>The profound impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukraine crisis 2022 on tourism has rendered forecasts of tourism demand obsolete. Accordingly, scholars have begun to look for the best methods to predict the recovery of tourism. In this study, econometric and judgmental methods were combined in order to to forecast the possible ways to tourism recovery in Slovenia. The goals of this paper are to show and assess the current offerings and potential for the development of tourism in Slovenia, and to point out the advantages and challenges in the development of tourism in this type of destination. Statistical methods were used for benchmark analysis, while Box and Jenkins approach and ARIMA modeling were used for forecasting Slovenian tourism until 2030. The datasets are analyzed using Tableau 2022.1. Our findings show that Slovenian tourism will be slower on the uptake and is not likely to fully recover until 2026, due to COVID-19 related uncertainty. A steep jump in daily COVID-19 infections in China and the Ukraine crisis which is affecting political and economic stability in the world is also slowing down the speed of recovery. In 2019, Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian tourists generated 5% of all tourist arrivals and overnight stays. In particular Russian tourists were well-known for their high consumer expenditure and thus desirable to the destination places. To mitigate the drop in tourist arrivals, Slovenia should do two things, namely concentrate on traditional markets, i.e. Austria, Italy, and Germany, which altogether represent 1/3 of all tourist arrivals and overnight stays, and secondly, it should target new markets, bringing new, innovative products, services, and experiences.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 IMPACT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON FINANCIAL INNOVATION, CASHLESS SOCIETY, AND CYBER RISK 2022-06-21T15:51:13+02:00 Nikola Fabris <p>The global pandemic, as an unprecedented event in the recent past, has significantly changed the modern world. Numerous companies and individuals have faced various challenges that are still present. The aim of this paper is to review the impact of pandemic on financial innovation, fintech companies, cryptocurrencies, the development of a cashless society, and cyber risk. It tests two already confirmed hypotheses: H1: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the development of financial innovations and cashless society; and H2: COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased cyber risk. The method applied is desk research, i.e. a review of the existing studies and their unification. The paper shows that fintech companies proved to have been resilient during the crisis since they have managed to change their business model and offer new products and services (financial innovations). It also indicates that it is obvious that the number of cashless transactions have increased due to the pandemic, but that it is still not reasonable to expect a completely cashless society in the near future. The paper highlights that cyber risks are on the rise owing to the growth of cashless transactions and digitalisation of businesses driven by the global pandemic.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 FORECASTING THE BEHAVIOR OF TARGET SEGMENTS TO ACTIVATE ADVERTISING TOOLS: CASE OF MOBILE OPERATOR VODAFONE UKRAINE 2022-06-21T15:53:34+02:00 Tetiana Zatonatska Oleksandr Dluhopolskyi Tatiana Artyukh Kateryna Tymchenko <p>Today, the use of machine learning technology in combination with the use of big data are topics that are actively discussed in business around the world. This topic has long gone beyond the information sphere, as it now applies to almost every sphere of life: economic, telecommunications, education, medicine, administration, and especially defense. Predicting customer behavior based on scoring models is in its infancy in Ukrainian companies, the main ones being the introduction of artificial intelligence technologies and machine learning, which will be the leading catalyst that will facilitate decision-making in business in the nearest future. The aim of the study is to develop a scoring model that predicts the behavior of target segments, namely, updating their activity to activate advertising tools. To achieve the goal of the work a set of research methods was used: dialectical – to reveal the theoretical foundations of models and types of forecasting models; analytical – in the study of the functioning of the environment SAS, Anaconda; optimization methods – to choose the best model and generate features. Scientific novelty and theoretical significance lie in the development of a scoring model for predicting the activity of subscribers of the telecommunications company “VF Ukraine”, on the basis of which marketing campaigns are conducted. With the help of the built-in scoring model, the company “VF Ukraine” can target its campaigns to retain subscribers. The marketing directorate of the enterprise can choose the TOP-20 or TOP-30 of the most prone subscribers to non-resumption of activity, i.e., tend to switch to other mobile operators, and hold promotions for them – providing additional gifs and bonuses, money to mobile account.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 HOW CAN BLOCKCHAIN CONTRIBUTE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRY ECONOMIES? A LITERATURE REVIEW ON APPLICATION AREAS 2022-06-21T15:57:19+02:00 Tom Gillpatrick Semra Boğa Oncel Aldanmaz <p>Blockchain technology originally finding applications in Fintech and supply chain management is rapidly expanding applications to other industries as well as the public sector. “Blockchain has been compared to the invention of the internet and its comprehensive impact on almost every industry.” R. Beck and B. Markey-Towler (2017) A recent study by PWC (2020) found that, “Blockchain technology has the potential to boost global gross domestic product by $1.76 trillion USD over this decade.” It has been argued that the digital revolution has favored more developed nations and that has helped create a “digital divide” with less developed nations. Business and governmental infrastructure in developing nations have lagged that of more developed nations. Some of these challenges faced by developing nations include the registration of property ownership, financial systems, modern efficient supply chains often accompanied by a lack of trust and the ability to verify and audit organizational processes rapidly and economically. Blockchain technology has the promise to address many of the critical needs of developing countries internally and in external trade relationships to help enable them to be more competitive. This paper will review the literature and examine the impact of Blockchain technology on how its adoption may ameliorate many of these critical challenges for developing nations helping to improve governance and economic benefits that are shared more equitably. Potential for both positive and negative impacts with be discussed along with policy implications for public policy makers and private enterprises.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 IDENTIFICATION AND LEVELLING OF CRISIS PHENOMENA IN THE WORLD GRAIN MARKET IN THE 2022/23 MARKETING YEAR 2022-06-21T16:01:48+02:00 Kateryna Kovtoniuk Ellana Molchanova <p>The aim of this paper is the detection crisis phenomena in the world grain market in the 2022/23 marketing year (MY), which worsened during the Russia Ukraine invasion on February 24, 2022. Some countries and international organizations have recently expressed concern that the reduction of grain supply on the world market and the rapid rise in its price. Whether the impact of the destabilizing situation on the world grain market on the exacerbation of hunger is an open question. In order to fill the research gap, the paper tries analysis the global market into grain types between 2008/09 MY to 2021/22 MY and identify on it the shares of Ukraine and Russia. Two methods are used to conduct a comprehensive study of the grain market - fundamental and technical analysis. The analysis of the state and dynamics of the main indicators of the world grain market was carried out with the help of fundamental analysis. The results show that the volume of grain production in the world and the two warring countries are growing. Both countries supply about a quarter of all products in the overall structure of world grain exports. Finally, the result also shows that Ukraine and Russia are key exporters of barley, rye, wheat, and corn to low-income and least developed countries. Grain price forecasting through technical analysis was carried out. Based on the results obtained during the fundamental and technical analysis, three scenarios for the development of the grain market and its impact on the problem of hunger were proposed and given recommendations for levelling of crisis phenomena.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE IMPACT OF THE COVID 19 CRISIS ON THE FISCAL STABILITY OF REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA 2022-06-21T16:04:43+02:00 Biljana Gojković <p>The consequences of the COVID-19 crisis have had a negative impact on the fiscal stability of Republic of Srpska. Although the crisis is not officially over yet, a large number of countries needed to implement fiscal consolidation. Republic of Srpska is one of the small and open economies that are exposed to various negative market distortions. COVID-19 crisis of the most important foreign trade partners of the Republic Srpska has had a negative impact on the economy of Republic Srpska.</p> <p>The basic idea of the paper is based on the need to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the fiscal stability and public finances of Republic of Srpska. The subject of the research is the analysis of the implementation of the fiscal consolidation procedure in Republic of Srpska and the impact on its economic growth. For the implementation of fiscal consolidation, the choice of methods and instruments on which the process of implementing fiscal consolidation is based is very important.</p> <p>Fiscal consolidation is necessary due to the consequences caused by the COVID-19 crisis and the enormous growth of the deficit. The analysis proves that the measures applied to rehabilitate the crisis have resulted in improved fiscal stability, which ultimately had a positive impact on economic growth. Fiscal consolidation will be successful and expansive if it is carried out by a combined method of increasing revenues and reducing expenditures and if the increase in revenues is caused by the growth of economic activity and not by the tax burden.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 EMERGING CHANGE: EXPLORING THE NEW ECONOMY PARADIGM 2022-06-21T16:06:50+02:00 K.V.Ch. Madhu Sudhana Rao Mythili Kolluru Denis Hyams-Ssekasi <p>This paper examines and ascertains the dominant and latent characteristics of the new economy post COVID-19. It acknowledges the far-reaching repercussions and long-term societal and economic impacts caused by COVID-19. The study administered online questionnaires to professionals globally and conducted online semi-structured interviews of economists, entrepreneurs, and organizational leaders across ten countries. The study tested the hypothesis with the non-parametric Chi-square test. The interview transcripts were subjected to thematic and content analysis. The research findings have indicated the emerging changes in the economy and way of life leading to a new normal. Projections have been reported to increase digitalization and implementation in business, deglobalization, geopolitical developments, fluctuations in macroeconomic variables, and climate change. The study further revealed that hybrid work strategies would be embraced, requiring the labor market to upskill and reskill to stay competitive. Digitalization of businesses will become essential to gain a competitive advantage in domestic and international markets. The paper predicts the anticipation of changes in human behavior regarding health, personal care, and consumption patterns. The study noted the variations in the new economic trends, possibilities, challenges, and coping strategies to survive and thrive in the new economic paradigm. Therefore, these research findings provide valuable and insightful economic releases which will have profound implications in the post COVID-19 world.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 TOURIST SERVICES OF THE WESTERN REGION OF UKRAINE: RATING AND ANALYSIS 2022-06-21T16:11:42+02:00 Tomasz Wołowiec Kostiantyn Pavlov Olena Pavlova Kateryna Zaichuk <p>Today, together with the recognition of the tourism industry as one of the priorities in the economy of Ukraine, quite active and effective activities have been launched to build a structure of prerequisites for achieving the most effective level of its functioning. At the same time, we understand that to achieve the most successful functioning of the market of tourist services, it is necessary to initiate efforts to overcome the economic crisis and stop military events in Ukraine. We can witness that the market of needs services is becoming increasingly important as a mandatory component in the languages of modern market relations. The tourism industry is a leading field of activity in many countries worldwide. Its development allows you to actively use the most popular and valuable natural resources, ensure job creation, significantly improve the economic, environmental, and social situation, and expand investment space. In Ukraine, the sphere of tourist services has not yet taken its rightful place in services and the economy in general. Therefore, there is a need to substantiate various processes implemented in tourism services at the scientific level, with due regard for national and regional market realities, both in the market and its economic and social situation. An important aspect is also the socio-economic development of the state's regions, which reflects the continuity and stability of regional tourism markets. Among the many problems facing the balanced development of regional tourism, markets ensure the appropriate level of their competitiveness, both between each other and internationally. In our country, tourism began to gain its development at the whole level not so long ago because it did not have a total base for its formation. At the same time, forming a significant share of state, regional, and local budgets and being a necessary "plane" of market circulation, problems in regulating tourism in the regions are the focus of research while forming further and important competing principles. Therefore, today, we need to implement our study by rating the indicators of infrastructural development of the Western regional market of tourist services in Ukraine.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE IMPACT OF INNOVATION ON THE MANAGEMENT OF MISAPPLICATION OF CHANGE IN THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY 2022-06-21T16:16:19+02:00 Oana Bianca Pop (Uifălean) Dorel Cristian Uifălean <p>Changes in the production system are always good information, because when there are changes, then there are production and processes. Errors or incorrect implementation of the change may occur with the implementation of these changes. Eliminating errors is one of the top priorities of any company that wants to achieve its quality goals. This paper describes the process by which a change request was implemented incorrectly and its consequences. the aim is to avoid the incorrect implementation of changes. The paper also presents how to suppress the implementation process and the steps followed to discover errors. Researching the methodology shows that there are frequent errors in the process of implementing changes to easily products or services, but there are also many ways to solve them. Advanced technology helps to discover them and remove them in the best possible way. In conclusion, the paper, decided that it is important that the changes brought in the process are carefully monitored and that there is a traceability of the information that is related to the change.</p> 2022-06-21T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022